ISO files can be easily transferred to the ESXi host’s datastore by using VMware’s vSphere Client software. There you go to configuration/storage/datastorage/ -> browse datastore. Here you can simpy add files to the datastorage from your local machine.
After trasferring the Ubuntu Server 16.04 ISO-file I booted a freshly created virtual machine from the ISO.
Below you can find the answers to the questions I chose during the installation;
Install Ubuntu Server
Keyboard no, on the next section you can choose Finnish
install guided, use all space
software I accidentally pressed enter and failed to choose SSH
After the installation the machine booted and presented a login promt.
Next, I wanted to give an static ip address for the server. I had to edit the file /etc/network/interfaces
The file looked like this when dhcp was enabled;
And this was the content with static address enabled;
Next restart networking service
$ sudo service networking restart
I could not connect to the divice but I assumed it was because of ssh was not enabled so I enabled it;
$ sudo apt-get install openssh-server
$ sudo ufw allow 22
$ sudo service ufw restart
I was confused for a long time because I could not ping the virtual machines from outside the test network. The problem was that I had inserted incorrect netmask. After installing SSH-daemons to the virtual machines and setting the correct netmask connection was established.
Next I installed OpenVPN and RSA for the key generation, to the Ubuntu Server.
$ sudo apt-get install openvpn easy-rsa
Certificates are used to encrypt traffic so next I copied an easy-rsa template directory to the home directory.
$ make-cadir ~/openvpn-ca
Then edited the certificate inside the folder.
$ nano vars allows to get inside the file vars where you can find the configuration for the certificate. Here I changed the KEY_NAME to “server”
Also these export values need to be changed to for your correct information.
Next, the vars directory needed to be sourced so that the export values can be automatically exported to upcoming configures.
Then we want to make sure we are in a clean environment so run the command;
Then I created the root-certificate with command ./build-ca, the picture below shows as it finds the export values I inserted earlier to the vars.
21.2.2018 klo 9:30
Certificate, Key and Encrypting
I tried to create keys with the command ./build-key-server server but I got a message -bash: ./build-key-server: No such file or directory
I was in the home directory so I tried it again inside the openvpn directory, now I got the frollowing;
I gave the command source ./vars again and after that the command worked.
To create the certificate I had to press enter to the questions like before.
Next I created a Diffie-Hellman encryption. It is a encrypting that is used during a key exchange.
$ ./build-dh This takes a while so go get some coffee 🙂
Then the creation of HMAC signing to enhance the servers ability to check TLS integrity.
HMAC = Hash-based message authentication code, it can be used to check data integrity and authenticity of a message.
$ openvpn –genkey –secret keys/ta.key
To make things simple I created the client certificate on the server. You can create as many certificates you have clients. I wanted to create a password for certificate so I gave the following commands;
$ source vars
$ ./build-key-pass client1
Then once again hit enter to the questions, because the answers come from the vars
Configure the OpenVPN Service
Next we want to copy all files we have created so far to the /etc/openvpn directory.
$ cd /openvpn-ca/keys
$ sudo cp ca.crt server.crt server.key ta.key dh2048.pem /etc/openvpn
Next I copied and unzipped and OpenVPN sample configuration file. It is a good file to base your configurations on and make the changes you want.
$ gunzip -c /usr/share/doc/openvpn/examples/sample-config-files/server.conf.gz | sudo tee /etc/openvpn/server.conf
$ sudo nano /etc/openvpn/server.conf
In the section tls-auth I removed the semicolon and to the next line I added “key-direction 0”
Right below this section you can find section cryptografic cipher. I uncommented the AES-128-CBC. AES gives a strong encryption. Below this I added also auth SHA256 which decrypts the HMAC message. Finally below this I uncommented the lines user nobody and group nobody
To direct all traffic through the vpn I uncommented lines;
push ”redirect-gateway def1 bypass-dhcp”
push “dhcp-option DNS xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx”
push “dhcp-option DNS xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx”
You can also change the ports to use if it is nesseccery but at this point I did not.
We need to allow traffic to be routed to the server in order to use the VPN. We modified the file /etc/sysctl.conf by deleting the # from the following line net.ipv4.ip_forward. We saved the file and restarted the session.
$sudo nano /etc/sysctl
Up next we modified the firewall so the VPN can mask client connections. First we need to configure the public network interface.
$ip route | grep default
We modified the firewall’s rules with the following command:
$sudo nano /etc/ufw/before.rules
We added the following lines to the file (on line 10). Be sure to add the correct interface.
# START OPENVPN RULES
# NAT table rules
:POSTROUTING ACCEPT [0:0]
# Allow traffic from OpenVPN client to wlp11s0 (change to the interface you discovered!)
-A POSTROUTING -s 10.8.0.0/8 -o ens33 -j MASQUERADE
# END OPENVPN RULES
After the lines were added to the file we had to configure the firewall to accept all routed packets by default. Next we have to edit the file
$sudo nano /etc/default/ufw
and modify the following rule: DEFAULT_FORWARD_POLICY -> ACCEPT
Next we need to allow port 1194/udp to route traffic to our OpenVPN.
$sudo ufw allow 1194/udp
$sudo ufw disable
$sudo ufw enable
Start up and enable the OpenVPN service.
$sudo systemctl start openvpn@server
$sudo systemctl status openvpn@server
Make sure the indication color is green and then enable the service to start up on system boot.
$sudo systemctl enable openvpn@server
Client Configuration Infrastructure
We need to create a folder in the home directory and encrypt it so that only proper authorization can access it.
$sudo mkdir -p ~/client-configs/files
$chmod 700 ~/client-configs/files
We need to copy the configuration file and modify it.
$cp /usr/share/doc/openvpn/examples/sample-config-files/client.conf ~/client-configs/base.conf
First we need to modify the line: remote server_IP_address 1194. We need to add the public IP and correct port (if it’s not correct already).
Make sure the protocol used is udp. Get rid of the “;” from the lines “user” and “group”. Next you need to find the line SSL/TLS perms. Make sure to add a # to the following lines: ca, cert and key. Edit the lines “Cipher” and “Auth” the same way we did earlier in the server.conf file.
Then add a new line to the end of the file:
Add a # to three more lines:
# script-security 2
# up /etc/openvpn/update-resolv-conf
These will be used if the client is connected with a device running linux
Finally, add a few commented out lines. We want to include these with every config, but should only enable them for Linux clients that ship with a /etc/openvpn/update-resolv-conf file. This script uses the resolvconf utility to update DNS information for Linux clients.If your client is running Linux and has an /etc/openvpn/update-resolv-conf file, you should uncomment these lines from the generated OpenVPN client configuration file.
First time installation
Our updated project plan was approved in this week’s group meating. Two computers and two hard drives were allocated to us as a result. We will be installing and configuring a VPN on these devices. We should be able to test out two different approaches with the two devices given to us. To kick off the project we installed OpenVPN and Ubuntu Server on our laptops to try them out before actually installing them onto a hard drive located in a desktop. We will be installing and configuring Ubuntu Server and OpenVPN on a desktop after we’ve had some practice with them in a safe environment.
After creating a live usb stick with Ubuntu Server 16.4.03 LTS we proceeded to install it on a laptop. The options “Basic Ubuntu Server”, “DNS Server” and “Basic Utilities” were selected in the Software Selection section. We didn’t install OpenSSH as it’s not of any use to us in the trial phase. The installation failed with only a black screen as a result and no input from the user was registered by the computer. The second installation failed as well as we chose the option “Install Ubuntu Server” when we were supposed to simply select “Install”. Our third attempt was successful. We installed a GUI as well for ease of access as it was our first time using Ubuntu Server although one should never be installed on a server operating system. After the Ubuntu Server installation was complete we installed OpenVPN with the following command:
$sudo apt-get update $sudo apt-get install openvpn
We wanted to enable “Network Bridging” so we also installed the following:
$sudo apt-get install bridge-utils
After which we modified the file in the path: /etc/network/interfaces We modified the file by filling in the following information: IP, Netmask, Broadcast, Network, Gateway. After modifying the file we restarted the service:
$sudo /etc/init.d/networking restart
The restart failed so we used the command:
$systemctl status networking.service
The end result was the following:
● networking.service – Raise network interfaces Loaded: loaded (/lib/systemd/system/networking.service; enabled; vendor preset: enabled) Drop-In: /run/systemd/generator/networking.service.d └─50-insserv.conf-$network.conf Active: failed (Result: exit-code) since Wed 2018-02-14 16:27:46 EET; 47s ago Docs: man:interfaces(5) Process: 4063 ExecStop=/sbin/ifdown -a –read-environment –exclude=lo (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS) Process: 4109 ExecStart=/sbin/ifup -a –read-environment (code=exited, status=1/FAILURE) Process: 4090 ExecStartPre=/bin/sh -c [ “$CONFIGURE_INTERFACES” != “no” ] && [ -n “$(ifquery –read-environment –list –exclude=lo)” ] && udevadm settle (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS) Main PID: 4109 (code=exited, status=1/FAILURE)
The interface id we added to the file /etc/network/interfaces was faulty. We replaced the old interface id (eth0) with wlp3s0 which was acquired with the “netstat” command. The restart once again failed but for a different reason. This time the error message read “Can’t add wlp3s0 to bridge br0: operation not supported”.
We noticed that we were following instructions aimed at installing OpenVPN on Ubuntu instead of Ubuntu Server which is why we decided to start over following a different set of instructions.
The second time around we installed Ubuntu Server 16.4 LTS on a Lenovo T400 laptop using a live USB. We used similar instructions as last time. The installation was successful except for a “installation step failed” error message displayed in the “Software selection” phase. We looked for a solution and it turned out the laptop was attempting to install the OS from a disc when it was supposed to be looking for the files online and use those to complete the installation.
ALT+F2 (To access the command line) $cd /target/etc/apt (Enter the apt directory) $cp sources.list.apt-install sources.list (To copy the file onto "sources.list") $nano sources.list (To modify the file) Commented the line "cdrom" by adding a # in front of it $chroot/target apt-get update $chroot/target apt-get upgrade "ALT+F1" (To continue the installation process)
We proceeded on from “software selection” and realized that the update command prompted more options than last time. “Standard utility tools” was the only option we checked as we didn’t need anything alse. After the installation was done the laptop booted up and the login prompt was displayed correctly.
The file “/etc/network/interfaces” was missing the “Primary network interface” -line so we added it to the file. DHCP was used.
#The primary network interface auto lo iface lo inet dhcp
After the file was modified we restarted the service:
$sudo service networking restart
When using DHCP the DNS service also needs to be installed. We attempted installing it but ran into some unexpected trouble as some configuration files were missing altogether. We decided to install the OS all over again this time with DNS, in “Software selection”, installed as well.
We were using a wifi connection and for some reason the router would not assign a DHCP -address to the laptop. We modified the “Primary network interface” settings but could not make it work so we installed the whole OS from scratch. This time the laptop was hooked up on the router with an ethernet cable. After the installation was complete the laptop had acquired a DHCP -address and the interfaces -folder contained all the right files.
OpenVPN and RSA keys
The installation of OpenVPN and creation of the RSA keys:
$sudo apt-get install openvpn-rsa $make-cadir~/openvpn-ca $nano vars
Fill in your own information and name the Key “server”.
$./clean-all (To make sure there are no old certificates) $./build-ca (To build a root certificate)
Continue typing enter as the “vars” -file should supply all the answers.
$./build-key-server server (To create a key)
Once again continue with enter until the last two questions which should both be answered with a yes.
$./build-dh (To create the Diffie-Hellman keys. This may take a while) $openvpn -genkey -secret keys/ta.key (To create the HMAC -signature)
The Client’s certificate
$./build-key-pass client1 (To create a client certificate. Select the passphrase and continue with enter)
Configuring the OpenVPN service
$sudo cp ca.crt server.crt server.key ta.key dh2048.pem /etc/openvpn (To copy the files onto the OpenVPN folder) $gunzip -c /usr/share/doc/openvpn/examples/sample-config-files/server.conf.gz | sudo tee /etc/openvpn/server.conf (To copy and unzip the sample config)
We made the same changes to the configuration files as we did previously.
$sudo nano /etc/sysctl.conf (To edit the file and uncomment the line "net.ipv4.ip_forward" by removing the #) $sudo sysctl -p (To update the session)
$-ip route | grep default (To find out the public interface network) $sudo nano /etc/ufw/before.rules (To enter the file and add the following):
#START OPENVPN RULES #NAT table rules *nat :POSTROUTING ACCEPT [0:0] #Allow traffic from OpenVPN client to wlp11s0 (change to the interface you discovered!) -A POSTROUTING -s 10.8.0.0/8 -o ens33 -j MASQUERADE COMMIT #END OPENVPN RULES
$sudo ufw allow 1194/udp -To allow port 1194 $sudo ufw disable $sudo ufw enable
$sudo systemctl start openvpn@server $sudo systemctl status openvpn@server (check whether the service restarted properly) $sudo systemctl enable openvpn@server (this will start the service when system boots)
Client configuration was done in the same manner as previously
Configuration generation script
We created a simple script to match our configuration to the proper certificates, keys and crypted files
$sudo nano ~/client-configs/make_config.sh (To add the following information):
#First argument: Client identifier
<(echo -e ”)
<(echo -e ‘\n’)
<(echo -e ‘\n’)
<(echo -e ‘\n’)
<(echo -e ”)
Save the file and run it:
$chmod 700 ~/client-configs/make_config.sh
Generate client configurations
Create a configuration file for the client:
$cd ~/client-configs $./make_config.sh client1
Make sure the file was created properly “client1.ovpn”
$sudo ls ~/client-configs/files
The following command will allow you to edit the file:
$sudo nano ~/client-configs/files/client1.ovpn
Connecting client device
We attempted connecting a smartphone to our VPN server. The first step is to transfer the .ovpn file we just created onto the phone as it contains all the keys and tools required to form the connection. We transferred the file onto a USB stick first as we couldn’t move it directly to the phone. Eventually we managed to add the file to the phone’s download folder.
Next up we downloaded the OpenVPN Connect app from google play store. Upon starting the app we selected the .ovpn file and hit the import button. The app managed to attain the server’s IP -address but the connection failed with a “Connection timed out” message.
We figured out the problem was most likely caused by the router’s firewall and a closed port (1194).
Today we finally started to install ubuntu server 16.04 and OpenVPN software to our main computer of this project that we will be using for rest of this time. The computer is located at our schools “server room” and the model of the computer is HP Compaq 8200 Elite Convertible MiniTower PC. We will be installing all the needed software and operating systems to our hard drive which will be plugged into our computer.
Because we have already managed to install Ubuntu server and OpenVPN successfully earlier in our own computers this installation and configuration should go without any huge problems because we had already figured out all the main problems that can usually occur during the installation.
During our earlier installation times we had made for ourselves easy step by step instructions what to do during installation, so we used those to make this installation process to go as smooth as possible. You can go check this installation report out from our wordpress site.
We plugged our hard drive and USB stick that contained the installation disk image for ubuntu server 16.04 into our computer. We had prepared 2 different kind of installation options in case one wouldn’t work for some reason. These two were Ubuntu server installation from CD or from USB. We decided to install the ubuntu server 16.04 from our usb stick to the hard drive as we already knew how to get that work properly. After that we started to computer and began the installation process.
Installation was going normal until we got the same error message after “Software selection” screen. The problem here was that the installer tried to install the softwares from nonexistent cd-rom and not from internet as it is supposed to. To fix this problem we just did the same thing as earlier, what you can go see from our wordpress site where installation process is reported step by step. After this one little error fix rest of the installation went down smoothly and finally the ubuntu server 16.04 was installed successfully to out main computer that we use in this project. Finally after installation we successfully tried to login to our server with the credentials we stated during installation.
Now the next step was to install OpenVPN and RSA to our server from terminal. Which was accomplished just by basic “sudo apt-get install openvpn easy-rsa” command. All the server computer configuration that we did can be found written thoroughly from our wordpress. After this we decided to test our now supposedly working server with couple of clients. We had one extra laptop with linux xubuntu installed and our android based smartphones so we tried if we could connect those to our VPN server.
Linux Xubuntu client Installation
First we installed and configured OpenVPN client configuration to xubuntu:
sudo apt-get update sudo apt-get install openvpn
After installation we made sure that the installation had created the file we needed.
“Update-resolve-conf” was where it was supposed to be
. Next we had to to edit our client1.ovpn file that we had created in server computer and after transferred to our client devices.
There were three lines that needed to be uncommented:
script-security 2 up /etc/openvpn/update-resolv-conf down /etc/openvpn/update-resolv-conf
After that, all that was left, was try if our client computer can connect to our server:
sudo openvpn --config client1.ovpn
Connecting was successful
Android client installation
Client installation to android was really simple. You just needed to download “OpenVpn connect” app from Google play store. After downloading and installation app opened and it had 3 different options how to connect to the server. We decided to use option where you transferred the client1.ovpn file that we had created to our phones and simply just run it in the app. After the simple tutorial guide that app provided to us we just needed to push big button that stated “connect” and after that smartphone connected to out server just fine.
First successful connections over untrusted networks
The port 1194/udp was opened for traffic so now we could access the internet from our Ubuntu Server. We could also now connect to the VPN while the device was connected We attempted this with the “ping” command. We installed “tcp dump” to observe incoming and outgoing packets:
$ Sudo apt-get install tcpdump
$ sudo tcpdump -i eno1
After this the system started to monitor connections. We did not quite understand the outcome of it. Before learning how to analyze the connections we realized that we could already connect to the server from Haaga-Helia network. This meant that the ports had been opened for UDP traffic through port 1194 in the networks router. We just had not set the new public ip address of the server to the client file we were using. We had to create a new one.
Creating a new client file
We were able to access the internet from our Ubuntu Server but still couldn’t access our VPN while our devices were connected to the internet. So far the connection was established while connected to the school’s internal network. Next up we had to create a new client file with the proper ip address so that we can access the VPN from the internet. We created a new client file (client2) which contained the correct configurations so now we should be able to access the VPN from the outside web. We transferred the file to our laptop:
Sudo scp ~/client-configs/files/client2.ovpn firstname.lastname@example.org:/home/user/
The transfer failed and we got the following message:
@ WARNING: REMOTE HOST IDENTIFICATION HAS CHANGED! @
IT IS POSSIBLE THAT SOMEONE IS DOING SOMETHING NASTY!
Someone could be eavesdropping on you right now (man-in-the-middle attack)!
It is also possible that a host key has just been changed.
The fingerprint for the ECDSA key sent by the remote host is
Please contact your system administrator.
Add correct host key in /root/.ssh/known_hosts to get rid of this message.
Offending ECDSA key in /root/.ssh/known_hosts:1
ssh-keygen -f “/root/.ssh/known_hosts” -R xxx.xx.xxx.x
ECDSA host key for 172.28.171.5 has changed and you have requested strict checking.
Host key verification failed.
The problem was that the server’s cache had the information of the host’s verification information. The computer had been modified multiple times so that the verification information did not match the ones on the server’s cache.
We cleared the server cache in order to be able to connect to our laptop:
$ Sudo ssh-keygen -f “/root/.ssh/known_hosts” -R xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx
We successfully connected the server to the laptop and attached and mounted the smartphone to the laptop. The file was transferred onto the phone successfully. We created a new profile using the client2 configuration and could now connect to our VPN using mobile data. We could now access the VPN from any network.
Testing our VPN
Client machine must have openVPN installed and possess the Client.ovpn file.
Client laptop is connected to a smartphones 4G network and cannot ping VPNservers public nor private ip address, as you might already know it also cannot establish ssh connections.
First we press the openVPN icon and choose our client file, then connect. Connection is established. Now when we were able to ping devices on the VPNserver’s network successfully. Using Putty we could also use ssh connection to connect to the server itself and do configurations on it even though we were outside its network.
The next step in the project would be to assign our clients dynamic addresses from a certain pool.
Possible scenario for test users to try our services
We hand out an USB-stick that includes an instruction text file, client.ovpn file, OpenVPN installation file.
The instruction file includes at least the following;
- Instructions on how to install openVPN on windows/linux/android
- Instructions on where to place the client.ovpn file
- What you can do with the VPN
- How to establish connection
Then we follow the test user as he/she attempts to use the VPN service. After successful/unsuccessful attempt we ask opinions from the user.